A system for transmitting the location (GPS) of the victim to a mobile device via bluetooth, which will subsequently be transferred to the police to make a decision: to suppress a crime or disseminate information about the location to all users of mobile devices in a particular area.

Technical features
GPSA technology uses the following elements to function effectively:
"button" that allows you to share your location with a mobile phone via bluetooth connection;
mobile phone connected to a bluetooth device that allows you to share the transmitted information with the police through a special application;
the police as the authority to decide whether an alleged crime should be stopped by its officers or information should be transmitted to FEMA in order to disseminate the location of the alleged victim to all mobile device users in a given area through Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA).

This technological chain is designed to work without the need to connect to the Internet and use a mobile device at the time of the alleged crime. It relies only on GPS and bluetooth technologies.

To prevent cases with GPS vulnerabilities it is suggested to use Bluetooth and mobile application to send location to police.

Misusing the function

"Button" function can be used for revenge or a joke (prank) on a person who did not commit a crime, but became a victim of slander. In this regard, it is proposed to warn the user when using the app that a false call with a “button” can lead responsibility.

Bodily injury and lynching of presumed offender

Taking into account laws, especially Due process clause of the Constitution, it is a state interest to protect not only the victim, but also presumed offender from unlawful and unauthorized punishment.

Limits of the necessity defense

Title 18 PA § 503: Conduct which the actor believes to be necessary to avoid a harm or evil to himself or to another is justifiable if: (1) the harm or evil sought to be avoided by such conduct is greater than that sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense charged; (2) neither this title nor other law defining the offense provides exceptions or defenses dealing with the specific situation involved; and (3) a legislative purpose to exclude the justification claimed does not otherwise plainly appear.

Entering private property

Police need legal grounds to enter private property where an alleged crime is taking place. Therefore, a standard is needed to determine the legality of police entry into private property.


Cost (for consumers)

Consumers said that if the technology is available for $20, they are happy to use it.


Privacy (for consumers)

Consumers said that if the technology can save them from crime, they are willing to share their location.


The relationship of the victim with the alleged perpetrator and their perception

In some cases, victims report to the police the actions of people they know. In this case, it is possible that the report will be several weeks after the incident. In addition, the actions of the alleged offender may be subjectively regarded by the victim as a crime, even if it is not.



It can be very difficult to locate a crime scene using GPS technology if the location points to a skyscraper or building with multiple floors.


Perception of people around

Receiving location messages multiple times over a period of time can annoy mobile device users who later choose not to receive these messages or ignore the seriousness of the problem.

Licensing of Bluetooth device

  • To be allowed to use Bluetooth word mark and logos on the product and advertising.

Application Development for emergency texts

  • This is the price of basic app development. Medium-complexity app development cost ranges from $70,000 to $100,000.

Advertising & Marketing Costs

  • It includes customer research & surveys, affiliate marketing commission & fees, Influencer marketing, press, Google Ads, Facebook & Instagram Ads.


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S.-owned utility that provides users with positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services. 


Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEAs) are short emergency messages from authorized federal, state, local, tribal and territorial public alerting authorities that can be broadcast from cell towers to any WEA‐enabled mobile device in a locally targeted area. 


A wireless protocol that allows two similarly equipped devices to communicate with each other within a short distance (e.g., 30 ft.). 

Sexual assault

The term “sexual assault” means any nonconsensual sexual act proscribed by Federal, tribal, or State law, including when the victim lacks capacity to consent. 

Yvette Willson, JD


Gender Equity Center The Pennsylvania State University

Spencer Peters


Office of Sexual Misconduct Prevention & Response Pennsylvania State University

Michelle Beckenbaugh


PSU Police

Bunyod Babadjanov

Senior data engineer


Nargiza Safarova

LLM student

Penn State Law

Anny Gabriela Molina Ochoa

LLM student

Penn State Law

1. https://www.fema.gov/emergency-managers/practitioners/integrated-public-alert-warning-system/public/wireless-emergency-alerts
2. https://www.legis.state.pa.us/WU01/LI/LI/CT/HTM/18/
3. https://guidedimports.com/blog/bluetooth-guide/#:~:text=What%20is%20the%20risk%3F,violators%20and%20seizing%20their%20goods
4. https://www.thedroidsonroids.com/blog/mobile-app-development-cost
5. https://www.starterstory.com/ideas/bluetooth-device-business/startup-costs
6. https://www.starterstory.com/ideas/bluetooth-device-business/startup-costs?successful_subscribe=true&src=unlock_startup_costs#
7. https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2022/NIST.IR.8323r1.ipd.pdf
8. https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-101r1.pdf
9. https://www.justice.gov/ovw/sexual-assault

  • Lewis Katz, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 16802